Goat Farm in India
by J P Veti
goat kids in stall feeding
ALLIANCE AGRO COMMERCIAL GOAT FARMING
The status, economics and prospects of commercialization of goat production in the country have been analyzed using primary data from 14 commercial goat farms in different states. It has been revealed that several large and progressive farmers, who have adopted commercial goat farming, the entry of large farmers, who have better access to technical knowledge, resources and market ,in to this activity would help
In realizing the potential of goat enterprise A majority of commercial goat farms have been found operating with positive net returns. Goat rearing has been found equally rewarding under both intensive and semi-intensive systems of management. Intensification and commercialisation of goat enterprise has been recorded important because of shrinking of resources for extensive grazing. Commercialisation would help in increasing the goat productivity and bridging the demand-supply gap. However Use of improved technologies, particularly prophylaxis, superior germ plasm, low cost feeds and fodders and innovative marketing of the produce would be the pre-conditions foe successful commercial goat production.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
High demand for goat and its products with potential of good economic returns have been deriving many progressive farmers, businessmen, professionals, ex-servicemen and educated youths to take up the goat enterprise on a commercial scale. The emerging favourable market conditions and easy accessibility to improved goat technologies are also catching the attention of entrepreneurs. A total of 157 commercial goat farms spread over 16 states were identified. The trend of commercialisation of goat production was especially prominent in the states of Maharashtra Bihar, westBengal,Tamilnadu ,Andhrapradesh. All commercial farmers were well educated and a good access to technical and market information.The size of operational landholding of commercial farmers in all the categories was found large, from 5.0 acres to 78.5 acres, The entry of large farmers, The people having major income from business and salaried jobs(33%of the total farmers)had taken up commercial goat farming as their subsidiary occupation, These people might be able to better arrange the required capital and skills for intensive systems of goat production, Intensive system of management on 80 percent of the commercial goat farms. However, it was commercial goat farmers belonged to the general caste. All the commercial goat farmers were educated, with 90 percent of them as postgraduates.
GOAT BREEDS IN INDIA There are 20 well-defined breeds of goat in the country. The Sirohi, Barbari, Osmanabadi and Black Bengal ,Malabari, Nellore black and selam black were the important breeds of reared by the commercial goat farmers.Some commercial farms in India reared South African Boer-cross goats. The Boer was crossed that the cross of Boer and Malabari and Nellore black Osmanabadi, and Sirohi Breeds and non-descript goats. It was observed that the cross of Boer gained a body Weight of 24-35kg at the age of six months. The farmers informed the colour and meat of local breeds was preferred over the Boer-cross by the domestic consumers.
RETURNS The gross returns from goat
farming were maximum from the sale of animals(90percent) The average price of live goats realized by the farmers influenced the net returns positively and significantly, The reason for higher price realization by some farmers may be the effective marketing strategy and better quality of their animals(pure breed and good health) The analysis that majority of commercial goat farms were operating with positive net returns with 60 percent of them earning good profit. Goat rearing as an enterprise was found rewarding under intensive system, The commercial goat farming under intensive of management may therefore be declared as profitable and promising enterprise. However, the technological intervention, particularly prophylaxis, superior germ plasm, low cost feeds and fodders and innovative marketing of the produce would be the pre-conditions for successful commercial goat production. Though commercial goat farming under intensive systems of management has been picking up for the past couple of years, only less than one percent of goat population in the country has come under such production system. There has been no organized effort to develop this sector and hence hardly any support and the required infrastructure are available for encouraging the commercial goat farming in the country. Governments have started making efforts towards promoting goat rearing. In this backdrop, the commercial goat farmers do face a number of constraints, particularly during the initial phases of the goat ?farming project.
Goat rearing which was the economic activity of people has attracted large and progressive farmers, businessman and Industrialists, due to its economic viability under intensive systems of management of commercial production. The entry of resource rich people, including poultry farmers, who have better access to technical knowledge, resources and markets, into this activity would help in realizing the potential of this enterprise.
The lack of good quality breeding stock being a major constraint in commercialization of goat production, the farms managed on scientific lines should be encouraged to become the centres of production of superior quality breeding animals.
Considering good economic potential in commercial goat production, some large industrial houses such as Hind Agro Industries (a major meat exporter of the country) are entering into goat farming business, especially for the export market, However, food safety standards will have to be developed.
The commercial goat farmers can earn best profit by producing and marketing pure breed goats in the long run, vertical and horizontal integrations would have to be evolved for achieving sustainability of commercial goat production and remaining competitive in the global market. Service centres will have to be established to provide technical knowledge, recommended inputs and market information. Small size slaughterhouses need to be established near the production centres, to maintain commercialization of goat production. The private sector may be encouraged to create such infrastructures through appropriate policy support and incentives. This would enable the farmers to enhance their productivity and reduce cost of their production.
Alliance Agro Farms
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